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 Ibn Khaldun Courtesy of Personalities Nobel

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/09/2009

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مُساهمةموضوع: Ibn Khaldun Courtesy of Personalities Nobel   السبت 15 مايو 2010, 20:42

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]



[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]
Ibn Khaldun
Courtesy of Personalities
Nobel



Abd al-Rahman Ibn

Muhammad,
known as Ibn Khaldun after an ancestor, is considered to be the

founder
of modern sociology and philosophy of history. Born in Tunis, where his

parents later died of the Black Death in 1349, Ibn Khaldun spent
most of his

life in North Africa and Spain. He led a very political
life, working for a

number of royal courts in North Africa, where he
was also able to observe the

political and social dynamics of court
life. These observations would later

influence his writings on the
history of civilisations.


Ibn Khaldun's most
famous
book is the Muqaddimah ("Introduction"), which he wrote as the

first
volume of an intended multi-volume world history. In the Muqaddimah,

Ibn Khaldun set out his philosophy of history, and his views on how
historical

material should be analysed and presented. He concluded
that civilisations rise

and fall, in a cycle, as a result of
psychological, economic, environmental,

social, as well as political
factors. His attention to more than just the

political conditions
of a civilisation was revolutionary, as he sought to also

examine
social, religious, and economic factors in explaining world history. He

also
pioneered the emphasis on relating events to each other through cause
and

effect, and drawing parallels between past and present, when
writing history. He

subjected his study of history to objective,
scientific analysis, and lamented

the clearly biased histories
written before him.


After laying out
these and
other principles in the Muqaddimah, Ibn Khaldun wrote several

histories
of the Arabs, Jews, Greeks, Romans, Persians, Egyptians, and Berbers,

as
well as Muslim and European rulers. He also wrote his autobiography,
becoming

a leader in that new literary form. His attention to social
factors in the rise

and fall of civilisations helped to develop the
science of social development,

known today as sociology. His
influence on the fields of sociology and history

was tremendous,
particularly because his emphasis on reason and rationalism in

judging
history resulted in a notably non-religious tone to his work.


 الموضوع الأصلي : Ibn Khaldun Courtesy of Personalities Nobel 
المصدر :
مُنتَدَيَاتْ صُـوتــْ بَــلَــدْنََــا

______________________________________________________

eNg AhMeD

 

 

Ibn Khaldun Courtesy of Personalities Nobel

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
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