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 Islamic Believes and Practices

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/09/2009

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الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

 
مُساهمةموضوع: Islamic Believes and Practices   السبت 15 مايو 2010, 20:54

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]



Islamic
theology is a large field,
requiring detailed study to fully
understand. There are several basic beliefs
and practices, however,
that can be outlined here. Central to Islamic belief is
the absolute
power of God. Islam is strictly monotheistic, believing that there
is
only one God, omnipotent and merciful, and that associating any human
being
or image with God is an unforgivable sin. We have already seen
how this view
translates into the Muslim rejection of the Christian
belief in Jesus' divinity,
as well as in the Trinity, and it also
means that Muslims do not accept
idolatry, or shirk.

As we have also seen, Muslims believe
that
Muhammad was the last of a series of prophets that God sent to earth.
While
respecting the teachings of all earlier prophets, Muslims
believe that Allah
sent his final message to Muhammad in order to
correct the corruption of the
previous messages. As with the other
Abrahamic religions, Satan also exists in
Islamic theology, but
Islam's strict monotheism maintains that God is the most
important
figure. Satan is not nearly as important in Islam as he is in
Christianity,
for example. Also unlike Christianity, Muslims do not believe in
original
sin. They believe that God pardoned Adam's sin in order for human
beings
to begin life without sin. Muslims who have sinned in their lives, and
who
sincerely repent and submit to God, can be forgiven for their sins.
Muslims
also believe in a Judgement Day, when the world will end and
the dead will rise
to be judged.

There are Five Pillars of Islam,
which are
the most important practices for a Muslim to observe:





  1. Creed (Shahada):
    The
    statement of Shahada in Arabic is: "Ashhadu al-la ilaha
    illa-llah wa ashhadu
    anna Muhammadar rasulu-llah." An English
    translation would be: "I bear witness
    that there is no God but
    Allah and I bear witness that Muhammad is His
    Messenger." This
    declaration of the faith must be uttered publicly at least
    once in
    a Muslim's lifetime, although most Muslims recite it daily.





    [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]

    The Shahada inscribed at the
    Ottoman Topkapi
    Palace in Istanbul
    Courtesy of
    IslamiCity

    [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]

    The Masjid Aqsa in Jerusalem

    Courtesy of IslamiCity


  2. Prayers
    (Salate): The Muslim
    holy day is Friday, when
    congregations gather just past noon in a masjid,
    or mosque
    in English, the Muslim place of worship. The three holiest places of
    worship in the Islamic world are the Mosque of the Ka'ba in Mecca, the
    Mosque
    of the Prophet Muhammad in Medina, and the Masjid Aqsa,
    adjacent to the Dome
    of the Rock in Jerusalem. An Imam, or
    religious leader, gives a sermon
    and leads the congregation in
    prayer. Muslims do not need to be in a mosque in
    order to pray,
    however; they may do it anywhere - a house, office, school, or

    even outside. They must observe the qibla in all cases though, by

    facing towards the Ka'ba in Mecca when praying. Prayers must be
    performed five
    times daily - at dawn, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset,
    and nightfall. The prayers
    always contain verses from the Qur'an,
    and must be said in Arabic. Muslims
    believe that prayer provides a
    direct link between the worshipper and God.






  3. Purifying Tax (Zakat):

    Muslims believe that all things belong to God, and that humans
    hold wealth in
    trust for him. For that reason, it is believed that
    wealth should be
    distributed throughout the community of
    believers, or umma, through a
    purifying tax. The usual
    payment is 2.5 per cent of a person's wealth every
    year, the
    proceeds of which are distributed to the less fortunate. Additional
    charity work is also encouraged.






  4. Fasting (Sawm): During the
    month of Ramadan, the ninth month in the Islamic calendar, Muslims
    fast
    between dawn and dusk. They must abstain from food, liquid,
    and intimate
    contact during those hours of the day, in order to
    commemorate the Muslim
    belief that Ramadan was the month in which
    the Qur'an descended from the
    highest heaven to the lowest, from
    which it was then revealed to Muhammad in
    pieces over 22 years.
    Fasting is seen as a method of self-purification, by
    cutting
    oneself off from worldly comforts. The sick, elderly, travellers, and
    nursing or pregnant women are permitted to break the fast during
    Ramadan,
    provided they make up for it during an equal number of
    days later in the year.
    Children begin the ritual at puberty. The
    end of Ramadan is celebrated by the
    Eid al-Fitr, one of the
    major festivals on the Muslim calendar.







  5. Pilgrimage (Hajj): All

    Muslims are required to make one pilgrimage to Mecca in their lifetimes,

    provided they are physically and financially able to do so. The
    Hajj begins in
    the 12th month of the Islamic lunar calendar which
    means, like Ramadan, it
    does not correspond to a specific month in
    the solar calendar. Modern
    transportation methods, particularly
    the airplane, have made it possible for
    many more Muslims to make
    the Hajj today than 1400 years ago. Like Ramadan,
    the end of the
    Hajj is also celebrated with a festival, the Eid al-Adha,

    which is celebrated by all Muslims, whether or not they made the
    pilgrimage.
    These two festivals are the highlight of the Islamic
    year.







[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]

Hajj pilgrims praying towards the Ka'ba at the
Masjid Al-Haram in Mecca
Courtesy of IslamiCity



Gender Roles

The roles assigned to men and women
in
Islamic theology have often come under fire in the Judeo-Christian
world,
mostly due to misunderstandings of Islam's position on gender
roles, or the
corruption of Qur'anic doctrine by present-day
political leaders in Muslim
countries. The Qur'an says that men and
women are created equally before God,
and that while they have
different attributes, neither gender is superior. Both
men and women
have souls and can go to Heaven if they lead a life without sin,
contradicting
early Christian doctrine that women do not possess souls and are
inherently
evil, because of Eve's original sin. Islam does not blame Eve for
what
it believes happened in the Garden of Eden; it maintains that both Adam
and
Eve were responsible, but they repented before God and were
forgiven. Believing
women descended from the sinful Eve colored
Christian ideas of women's character
for centuries - as
untrustworthy, morally inferior, wicked beings - with
menstruation,
pregnancy, and childbirth believed to be punishment for all women
after
Eve. The Qur'an has no such images of women, who are not put on earth
solely
to bear children, but also to do good deeds the same as men.


The Qur'an states that women are not
possessions
of men. They are free to choose their own husbands and maintain
their
own names after marriage. Divorce is permitted, though discouraged.
Polygamy,
or the practice of a man having more than one wife, is also permitted
-
to a maximum of four wives - with the stipulation that the man must
have means
to care for all of his wives. Both women and men are
encouraged to seek
knowledge, and to manage their own financial
assets. A wife has the right to
claim financial support from her
husband, but a husband is not entitled to his
wife's earnings,
inheritance, or property. Women can own their own property,
enter
into legal contracts themselves, and give testimony in legal
proceedings.
A wife has the right to receive a mahr, or
dowry, from her husband upon
marriage, which cannot be returned
under any circumstances. She also has the
right to kind treatment
from her husband.

Still,
one should not assume from the
rights listed here that medieval
Islamic society featured perfectly balanced
gender roles. Women were
still considered fertile fields to which men should go,
menstruation
was treated as an illness, two women were required in order to
testify
in legal proceedings in the place of one man, and a woman's inheritance

was generally half of her brother's. Both men and women are
required by the
Qur'an to dress modestly, in order to be judged on
the basis of character rather
than appearance, and they must dress
differently from unbelievers. For women,
this includes the Hijab,
which for some Muslim women covers the head and
body except for
eyes and hands, while for others covers only the hair. It seeks
to
ensure that a woman is not viewed as a sexual being by those other than
her
husband.

These
basic tenets of gender roles
are set out in the Qur'an, but as with
many religions, the word of the holy
scripture has not always been
followed by those with political power. Women, for
example, have not
always been permitted their Qur'anic rights by Islamic regimes
throughout
history, just as gender roles in Christian, Jewish, Hindu, or other
religions
are not always carried out in everyday life


 الموضوع الأصلي : Islamic Believes and Practices 
المصدر :
مُنتَدَيَاتْ صُـوتــْ بَــلَــدْنََــا

______________________________________________________

eNg AhMeD

 

 

Islamic Believes and Practices

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