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 Muhammad saas

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/09/2009

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الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

 
مُساهمةموضوع: Muhammad saas   السبت 15 مايو 2010, 20:58

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]



Muhammad,
whose name

means "worthy of praise," was born about 570 in Mecca.
His father, Abdullah,

died before Muhammad was born, and his mother,
Amina, died when he was six years

old. His paternal grandfather,
Abdul Muttalib, then cared for him until his own

death two years
later, after which time Muhammad spent the rest of his childhood

in
the care of his uncle, Abu Talib. Little is known about his early life,
but

he was not wealthy, and it is believed he was a shepherd. When
he was 25 he

married Khadija, a wealthy widow about 15 years his
senior. Despite her age,

Khadija would bear Muhammad six children,
four of whom survived to adulthood -

daughters Zaynab, Ruqayya,
Fatima, and Umm Kulthum. Ruqayya later married

Uthman, and Fatima
married Ali, men who became the third and fourth caliphs,

respectively,
of the Islamic world after Muhammad's death. It is said that

Khadija
and Muhammad were truly in love, and that although polygamy was common

in
Arabia, she was his only wife until her death in 619.


Muhammad
frequently

retreated to Mount Hira, a place of privacy and
contemplation near Mecca, to

meditate and consider his spirituality.
Islamic tradition relates that it was

during one such trip, in 610,
when he was 40 years old, that Muhammad first

heard the voice of
the angel Gabriel, who recited to him the word of God, today

written
down in the Muslim holy book, the Qur'an, meaning "recitation."




[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]
The Qur'an


It is significant
that
Muslims believe that what Gabriel told Muhammad came directly from God,
and

that Muhammad was simply God's messenger. Muslims do not
believe that Muhammad

himself was divine in any way, an important
distinction that sets Islam apart

from Christianity, which does
believe in the divinity of Jesus. Muslims believe

that Gabriel
continued to send Muhammad messages from God until the prophet's

death.
Muhammad immediately began preaching the message he had received; his

wife,
Khadija, was his first convert, soon followed by his cousin and future

successor,
Ali. Islam says that the message was similar to those received by the

early
Hebrew prophets: that God is one, he is all-powerful, he is the creator
of

the universe, and that there will be a Judgement Day when those
who have carried

out God's commands will enjoy paradise in heaven,
and those who have not will be

condemned to hell. As we have seen,
these ideas were also part of the

Zoroastrian religion.

By
615, Muhammad had

gained several converts. These early Muslims were
persecuted in Mecca, mainly by

wealthy merchants who controlled the
city and feared that the new faith would

challenge their economic
monopoly. That year, about 80 Muslims fled from Mecca

to Abyssinia
(present-day Ethiopia) to take refuge with Christians there, who

were
enemies of the polytheistic Meccans. Muhammad's daughter, Ruqayya, and
her

husband, Uthman, were among those who fled, although Muhammad
himself stayed in

Mecca. The Abyssinian Christians treated the
Muslims well, helping to form

Muhammad's positive view of
Christians. He labelled both Jews and Christians

"People of the
Book," because their religion had a holy scripture. For this

reason,
Muhammad considered Judaism and Christianity to be superior to the

polytheistic,
humanist Arab religions. Islam also had several beliefs in common

with
the two older religions, and today calls itself the third "Abrahamic"

religion
because of what it sees as common roots between the three.



Before
Muhammad's

wife, Khadija, and his uncle, Abu Talib, both died in
619, Muhammad experienced

his famous "Night Journey." Although there
are several versions of what occurred

that night, Islam holds that
the angel Gabriel came to Muhammad while he was

sleeping near the
Ka'ba one night, and escorted him first to Jerusalem, then

through
seven heavens - where he met Abraham, Moses, and Jesus - to the presence

of God. This event later helped establish Jerusalem as the third
holiest city in

Islam, after Mecca and Medina. During his journey,
Muslims believe that Muhammad

was told of several tenets of Islam
that became some of the most basic acts of

the religion, such as
praying five times daily.


In
620, Muhammad

married A'isha, whose father, Muhammad's friend Abu
Bakr, would become the first

caliph after Muhammad's death 12 years
later. In 622, at age 52, Muhammad

finally fled persecution in
Mecca, taking his followers north to the city of

Yathrib. After his
arrival, the name of the city was changed to Medinat un-Nabi,

the
City of the Prophet, or Medina. Muhammad's journey to Mecca is known as
the

Hijra, or emigration, and marks the beginning of the Islamic
calendar.




[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]
The Islamic
Calendar



[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]
The Prophet's Mosque in Medina
Courtesy of
IslamiCity

Medina was much more tolerant of Islam than Mecca had
been, and the religion

flourished among the community there.
Muhammad expanded his role as a religious

leader into more of a
community leader in general, marking the initial

partnering of
religious and administrative affairs, which would become a

standard
practice in the future Islamic empires. He built a house there that

became
the model for the mosque later built on the site, the Prophet's Mosque,

which has since become the second holiest shrine in Islam, after
the Ka'ba in

Mecca.

In
624, Muhammad

decided the Medinans should intercept a camel caravan
on its way from Syria to

Mecca, for the purpose of disrupting
Meccan economic activity and obtaining the

cargo for his followers.
In the resulting Battle of Badr, the Medinans won a

decisive victory
despite being outnumbered by the Meccans. The event served to

unify
the Medinans and weaken the Meccans. It was also the first significant

victory
in battle for a people who would soon grow into the formidable military

force that would defeat long-standing empires from Persia to Egypt.



Also in 624,
Muhammad

decided that the qibla, or direction of prayer, should be
the Ka'ba in Mecca.

This strengthened Muhammad's resolve to bring
Mecca under Muslim control, and

several more battles were fought
between the two cities. Mecca was progressively

weakened by the
continued Muslim tactic of interrupting caravan traffic, and by

630,
the city fell to the Muslims with little resistance. Muhammad ordered a

general amnesty, thus winning over Meccans who feared retaliation
for past

persecution of Muslims, and the faith began spreading in
the city. Muhammad

destroyed the polytheistic idols in the Ka'ba,
and dedicated the monument to

Islam. It became, and today remains,
the spiritual centre of the Islamic faith.



In
631 Muhammad

reached peace settlements with the leaders of local
Christian and Jewish

communities, thus bringing those groups under
Muslim protection, as long as they

paid the jizya tax demanded of
all non-Muslims. In 632 he led a pilgrimage to

Mecca for the first
time, but 3 months later, at age 62, Muhammad unexpectedly

became
ill and died in Medina. He was survived by 10 wives but only one child -

daughter Fatima, who would later become Ali's wife, and would also
lend her name

to a 10th century Islamic dynasty in Egypt.

Thus
ended the life

of the man Muslims believe to be the last prophet
God sent to earth. Today, his

influence can be gauged by the fact
that more male children in the world have

the name Muhammad than any
other


 الموضوع الأصلي : Muhammad saas 
المصدر :
مُنتَدَيَاتْ صُـوتــْ بَــلَــدْنََــا

______________________________________________________

eNg AhMeD

 

 

Muhammad saas

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
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