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 Arabian Peninsula

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/09/2009

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الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

 
مُساهمةموضوع: Arabian Peninsula   السبت 15 مايو 2010, 21:00


[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]
The
Arabian

Peninsula - or, simply, Arabia - is a rectangular piece of
land surrounded by

the Red Sea on the west, the Persian Gulf on the
east, and the Arabian Sea to

the south. To the north lie Syria and
Mesopotamia, lands which saw the birth of

both Judaism and
Christianity. Many Jewish and Christian influences had

penetrated
Arabia before the coming of Islam in the 7th century, but the

inhabitants
of the Peninsula - the Arabs - did not follow either of those

religions.
Islam, as taught by the Prophet Muhammad, himself an Arab, was the

religion
that would convert the Arabs en masse to monotheism, or the belief in

only
one God.






[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]


A Note On
Muhammad's Name





The
people who

inhabited the Arabian Peninsula - which they called
Jazirat al-Arab, or "Island

of the Arabs" - were nomads, who
survived the harsh desert environment by

adhering to a seasonal
migration cycle. For four months from June to September,

the Arabs
waited out the summer heat, until the rains came in October. The eight

months
until the following summer were then spent travelling between grazing

grounds
on the desert's fringes. Their travel was eased by the domestication of

the camel, which allowed the Arabs access to the harsh Arabian
desert.





[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]

Camels


By about the 5th
century, some Arabs (a
word which seems to mean "desert dweller") established

settlements
in the desert and abandoned their nomadic ways. After that, the

remaining
Arab nomads became known as the Bedouins, while settled Arabs assumed

a
different identity and refused to acknowledge their shared ancestry
with the

Bedouins. One settlement that grew in Arabia was Mecca,
which later became the

birth place of Muhammad, and later still, the
holiest city of the Islamic faith.





[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]

Mecca




The nomadic Bedouin
population would
prove difficult to convert to Islam in the 7th century, not

only
under Muhammad, but under his successors as well. Much of the Bedouins'

reluctance
to embrace Islam as quickly as the settled Arabs was due to their

strong
adherence to traditional religions. The Arabs were polytheistic,
meaning

they believed in and worshipped more than one god. Different
regions of the

Arabian Peninsula often had their own patron deity,
which usually had its own

shrine. Arabs often embarked on
pilgrimages to different shrines throughout

Arabia. Above their
various gods, however, the Arabs also believed in a supreme

God, who
they called al-ilah, or "the God." The word, contracted as Allah, was

later
used in Islam as the name of the one and only God. In pre-Islamic
Arabia,

however, Allah was believed to be not the only God, but
simply the highest among

many gods.

The Arabs, like the
ancient
Greeks, were not only polytheists, but they were also humanists. They

valued
human life for the duration of its time on earth, and they did not

subscribe
to a belief in any sort of afterlife. Many Arabs rejected Christianity

for
that reason - the belief in Christ's resurrection was inconceivable,
even

ridiculous. They believed only in the human world, and the
prayers they offered

to their gods pertained to that world, not to
salvation or redemption in heaven.






[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]


Monotheistic
religions
- those that accept and worship only one God - were present in the

Arabian
Peninsula before Islam. Judaism and Christianity existed among the

populations
of southern Arabia, and Judaism was particularly influential in the

city
of Yathrib, which became known as Medina in Islamic times. Nestorian

Christians,
driven from the Byzantine Empire in the 5th century over differing

opinions
of doctrine, settled in Persia and in the northern Arabian Peninsula

and
converted some Arabs there. Zoroastrian traders from Persia passed
through

Mecca and other trading centres often enough to exert a
small religious

influence. Trade also linked the Arab world with
Christian Abyssinia

(present-day Ethiopia) across the Red Sea, which
intermittently controlled parts

of Yemen and southern Arabia. For
the most part, however, the Arabs retained

their traditional faith
until the emergence of Islam in the 7th century CE


 الموضوع الأصلي : Arabian Peninsula 
المصدر :
مُنتَدَيَاتْ صُـوتــْ بَــلَــدْنََــا

______________________________________________________

eNg AhMeD

 

 

Arabian Peninsula

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
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